1851 Census

1851 Census Date – 30 March 1851

The 1851 Census date was 30 March 1851. We are able to bring you direct links to the 1851 Census UK covering the 1851 England Census, 1851 Scotland Census, 1851 Wales Census, 1851 Isle-of-Man Census and the 1851 Channel Islands Census.

In the 1851 British Census there were some new census questions including asking the person’s relation to the head of the household, marital status, place of birth, whether the person is blind, deaf or dumb, and the language spoken (in Ireland).  The rounding down of ages that was part of the UK 1841 census was removed.

To search the 1851 English Census, 1851 Scottish Census and 1851 Welsh Census, 1851 IOM Census and 1851 Channel Islands (including the islands of Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Jersey, Jethou and Sark – these Channel Island’s census records can be individually selected) Census use the following direct census links:

1851 Census Links

1851 England Census
1851 Isle of Man Census
1851 Wales Census
1851 Channel Islands Census
1851 Scotland Census

Victorian Britain at the time of the March 1851 Census

Prime Minister

Lord John Russell, 1st Earl Russell (1846 to 1852)

Government of the day

The Whigs.

Foreign Secretary

Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston (1846 to 1851)
Replaced by George Leveson Gower, Earl Granville in December (1851 to 1852)

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Sir Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax (1846 to 1852)

Historical Snapshot – Victorian Britain in the decade up to the 1851 Census

Domestic Affairs

The Potato Famine – 1845 – 1852

Also known as The Great Famine or the Great Hunger. The failure of the potato crop, upon which the peasants of Ireland were so heavily and fatally dependent, was the most significant domestic event of the period. It resulted in the death of an estimated one million people, either by starvation or disease, and caused a similar number to emigrate, mainly to England or North America. By the time the famine had ended, it is estimated that a quarter of the population of Liverpool was Irish – a demographic trend that was replicated in many cities in North America. If you have Irish ancestry which dates back to the Victorian period, it is highly likely that your ancestors left Ireland during this period as a result of the Potato Famine.

“The Sketch of a Woman and Children represents Bridget O’Donnel. Her story is briefly this:– ‘. . .we were put out last November; we owed some rent. I was at this time lying in fever. . . they commenced knocking down the house, and had half of it knocked down when two neighbours, women, Nell Spellesley and Kate How, carried me out. . . I was carried into a cabin, and lay there for eight days, when I had the creature (the child) born dead. I lay for three weeks after that. The whole of my family got the fever, and one boy thirteen years old died with want and with hunger while we were lying sick.” By Illustrated London News, December 22, 1849

By Illustrated London News, December 22, 1849
Image, Caption, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=45948

Income Tax ‘temporarily’ introduced in 1842

Within a year of becoming Prime Minister, Peel had introduced one of the most ground-breaking budgets of the century. Significant strides were made towards free trade but, on the downside, income tax was ‘temporarily’ reintroduced. This was the first time income tax had been introduced during peacetime.

1843 – The assassination attempt of Sir Robert and rules for ‘criminal insanity’ established

A failed attempt to assassinate Peel resulted in the House of Lords developing the first legal test for criminal insanity – known as the ‘M’Naghten Rules‘. Daniel M’Naghten, an insane Scottish woodsman, was acquitted on grounds of criminal insanity despite Peel’s Personal Secretary being accidentally killed in the assassination attempt.

The pursuit of Social reform

Lord Ashley (later named Lord Shaftesbury), together with the reformer John Fielden, continued to battle for social reform and the elusive ‘ten hour working day’.

  • The Mines and Collieries Act (1842) had banned all women and boys under ten years old from working in the mines. Lord Ashley had successfully appealed to Victorian morality; women had to work bare breasted and wear trousers in the mines which “made girls unsuitable for marriage and unfit to be mothers”.
  • The Factories Act (1844) is now regarded as the first ‘Health and Safety’ Act because it actually addressed the need to fence off dangerous machinery. It also reduced the working day to 12 hours for women and young people (6.5 hours if they were under 13 years old – although they had to attend 3 hours schooling with all that free time!)
  • The Factories Act (1847) fleetingly introduced the ten hour working day but, following the exploitation of a loophole, it was finally pegged at ten and a half in the Factories Act of 1850.
The Free Trade Revolution – 1840s

The suffering caused by the Potato Famine bolstered support for the anti-Corn Law movement, the proponents of which argued that import duties on grain kept food prices high and disproportionately affected the poor. The Corn Laws were eventually repealed by the Importation Act of 1846 but they dragged down the Conservative Government and ended Robert Peel’s career.

By the 1840s, the battle for unilateral free trade against the forces of protectionism had been largely won in Britain. On the continent, a more violent storm was brewing…

Foreign Affairs

In 1842, Britain had successfully concluded the first ‘Opium War’. The Chinese had to cede Hong Kong and pay reparations to the British. The Chinese also had to agree a ‘fair and reasonable’ tariff.

In the same year, Britain very unsuccessfully concluded the Anglo-Afghan War. The result was a disastrous defeat and the annihilation of the British and Indian army.

In 1843, freed from the wars with China and Afghanistan, Britain proceeded to annex both the Sind (now part of Pakistan) and the Natal (now part of South Africa). Referring to the annexation of Sind (or Sindh), Sir Charles Napier from the British East India Company wrote in his diary; “We have no right to seize Sind, but we shall do so, and a very advantageous, useful, humane piece of rascality it will be”.

The people’s spring – ‘the Revolutions of 1848’

Whilst Britain was having its quiet economic revolution, the continent was having its ‘People’s Spring’ (aka the ‘Revolutions of 1848’) – a series of revolts in over 50 countries which led, amongst other things, to the overthrow of the French monarchy (again) and the foundation of the second French republic. 1848 also saw the first publication of the Communist Manifesto by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.